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The First Annual Conference of Economic Forum of Entrepreneurship & International Business



April 14th to 17th 2011

Triumph Hotel, Heliopolis

Cairo, Egypt

Dear Participants:

Thank you for making the conference successful.

Ghada Gomaa A. Mohamed & Morrison Handley-Scahchler


Click here for more conference photos

Excluding the scientific committee’s papers; highest points given by conference delegates went to papers presented by:

  1. Prof. Hala Hattab (The British University)  for her paper entitled: Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Does Gender Really Matter?  The Case of the Middle East,
  2. Dr. Shadwa Zaher & Dr. Randa Hamza (The British University & the American University)  for their paper entitled: Subsidies increase poor access: The case of wheat in Egypt, and
  3. Dr. Hebatallah Ghoneim  (The German University) for her paper entitled: The Role of Trade Agreement in Promoting Egyptian Exports.

Congratulations for the great presentations!

Special thanks to faculty members of Economics & Business at the British University in Egypt for their significant contribution to the conference. Special thanks for their contribution to the R&D in Egypt.

Special thanks to Trend Micro, Canada for their valuable gifts to the conference delegates.

The conference organizing committee


Special thanks to students of the Canadian University; the CIC & the American University; AUC for participation at ECO-ENA, Inc. open seminars


The Conference Proceedings


ISSN 1925-4601 = The Annual Conference of Economic Forum of Entrepreneurship & International Business (CD-ROM): Library & Archive Canada

ISSN 1925-461X = The Annual Conference of Economic Forum of Entrepreneurship & International Business (Online): Library & Archive Canada


ISBN 978-0-9810451-8-4 = The First Annual Conference of Economic Forum of Entrepreneurship & International Business (CD-ROM): Library & Archive Canada  - Publisher: ECO-ENA: Economics & ECO-Engineering Associate, Inc., Canada


ISBN 978-0-9810451-7-7 = The First Annual Conference of Economic Forum of Entrepreneurship & International Business (Online): Library & Archive Canada  - Publisher: ECO-ENA: Economics & ECO-Engineering Associate, Inc., Canada


Papers of Participants

Paper # (14-01) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Effects of distrust on the formation of collaborative alliances in agriculture: a social network approach”

Daniel E. May


Daniel May

Harper Adams University College


United Kingdom

Abstract: Collaborative alliances have been identified as useful business strategies to help individuals to adjust in turbulent business environments. Surprisingly, the article found that this strategy was not adopted by the ex-sugar beet farmers of the West Midland of the UK in response to the reform of the Sugar Regimen introduced by the European Union in 2006. According to these farmers, this is the result of lack of trust among potential partners. The article uses the network model developed by May (2011) with the purpose of determining whether this outcome corresponds to an equilibrium caused by the existence of distrust. Policy implications are then discussed.


Paper # (14-02) – Included in the conference proceedings

Does South African Government SME focus interventions work?” Rob Smorfitt & Charles O’Neil


Charles O'Neill

The British University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to determine whether the interventions introduced by the South African Government to stimulate SMEs have been successful. The paper investigates the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) intervention policy of the South African Government against the background of the putative benefits and costs attendant upon microeconomic policy intervention. In the first section, the literature survey examined the international literature on the nature of policies to stimulate the SME sector, the debate surrounding the need for interventions, and contextualized South Africa within this framework. In the next section the research methodology sets the conceptual framework for the empirical study that sought to determine the attitudes of entrepreneurs in the most populated province in South Africa, namely KwaZulu-Natal, to SME policy intervention and extrapolated from the various conclusions on the efficacy of the South African SME intervention policy. In the final instance, the summary, limitations, suggestions for further research as well as the recommendations flowing from the assessment of both the literature review and empirical investigation are presented in the context of how government could improve the stimulation of SMEs and subsequent employment creation.


Paper # (14-03) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Measuring the Money Demand Function Stability in Egypt Using Error Correction model and Cointegration”

Mohamed Abou Elsoud


Mohamed Abou ElSoud

Sadat Academy


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: This study aims at analyze the behavior of money demand function at narrow sense (M1) in Egypt based on annual data for the period (1991-2009), and in order to identify the determinants and the speed of adaptation and the extent of stability, to achieve this goal we constructed two models of the money demand function, in the short term, and in the long-term respect, depending on the Johansen test for the cointegration and the error correction. The study found that the demand function for real money is stable in the long term, and that real GDP and inflation rate are the most important variables affecting the level of demand for real money in Egypt during the study period, the results of estimating error correction model shows that there is a dynamic short-term between the demand for money and both the real GDP and the rate of inflation.


Paper # (14-04 )– Included in the conference proceedings

“A need for a balanced participatory approach in developing and implementing a Knowledge Management Strategy in International Development Organizations: The Case of CIDA Egypt”

Hadia FakhrElDin


Hadia FakhrEldin

The British University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: With the rise of globalization and the increasing demand for sustainability, Knowledge Management (KM) has been implemented widely in multinational organizations and in the private sector during the last two decades. In the public sector and in the international development domain, attempts to undertake KM initiatives have been more modest and less recorded and examined. This research is focusing on developing and implementing KM strategies in the international development organizations in an analytical way. The aim of the research is to investigate whether there is a successful model for developing a KM system that achieves an effective and successful implementation. It investigates some distinguished attempts made so far in that area world-wide and examines thoroughly the experience of one international development organization in Egypt. It comes up with a recommended model and criteria for implementation in similar entities.


Paper # (14-05) – Included in the conference proceedings “Entrepreneurship Education in Egyptian Universities: the need for an Educational Revolution”

David A. Kirby


David Kirby

The British University in Cairo dkirby@bue.edu.eg 

Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Throughout the world universities are being required to introduce entrepreneurship programs in an attempt to create more entrepreneurial graduate students. Though somewhat later than many other countries, Egypt is no exception as the Egyptian

Global Entrepreneurship monitor report for 2008 observes. This present paper uses existing research on Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial institutions, combined with the results of primary research on Egyptian students, to determine what the country‘s universities will be required to do if they are to meet the challenge. The study concludes that Egyptian universities will need to transform not only what they teach, but how they teach, whilst at the same time transforming their own institutions in order to create more entrepreneurial learning environments. The conclusions have relevance for Educational policy makers, university administrators and university academics not just in business and economics but across all disciplines.


Paper # (14-06) – Included in the conference proceedings

“A comparison between Islamic and traditional banks: Pre and post the 2008 financial crisis”

Mohamed Hashem Rashwan


Mohamed H. Rashwan

The British University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: This study tests the efficiency and profitability of banks that belongs to two different sectors: a) Islamic Banks (IBs) and b) Traditional Banks (TBs). The study concentrates on the pre and post 2008 financial crisis with an aim to test if there are any significant differences in performance between the two sectors. The study applies the MANOVA techniques to analyze the financial secondary data for only publicly traded banks in the same region.

The findings of the study show that there is a significant difference between the two sectors in 2007 and 2009 and there are no significant differences in 2008, which indicates the effect of the crisis on both sectors. IBs outperform TBs in 2007 and TBs outperform IBs in 2009. This result indicates the spread of the crisis to the real economy where IBs usually operate.


Paper # (14-07) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Water and The Sustainable Agricultural Development of the Nile Basine Ahmed Salama"


Ahmed Salamah

The British University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Nile River is the main source of water for the Nile basin countries. The provided water does not satisfy the enormous demand of water in the region. It is expected that atleast six out of the ten countries that share the Nile water will face water stress in the early 21st century. Nile water for the downstream countries like Egypt and Sudan is considered to be of a vital national priority.

Sustainable agriculture as a way of raising food that is healthy for consumers and animals, that does not harm the environment, is humane for workers, respects animals, provides a fair wage to the farmer, and supports and enhances rural communities has become of a vital need to the Nile basin countries.

Moreover, the stochastic nature of water supply and dynamic nature of water demand imply an allocation model with certain characteristics to maintain the sustainable development of the basin countries in order to maximize the overall welfare. Thus, the need for Pareto-optimal model is a prerequisite as the unidirectional of the river, is often considered as a source of tension and conflict between countries that is difficult to solve. Our goal in this paper is to arrive at the Pareto-optimal allocation model that maximizes the welfare of Egypt and Ethiopia without causing any significant harm to any of them. The Model that will be developed in this paper following the same methodology of D .Marc Kilgour and Ariel Dinar which is based on the idea of utilizing the water of the river by transferring it between countries within the river basin .To state differently, it allows the downstream countries that are in need for water to get it from an upstream country by compensating that country for less water available for usage ,trying to balance the growing demand of water in the Nile region for the sustainable agricultural development , which would lead to food security raising the economic welfare for the basin countries.


Paper # (14-08) – Included in the conference proceedings 

“Effect of policy reforms on farmers’ incentives to specialize” Daniel E. May, Graham J. Tate, and Leslie Worrall Participant:

Daniel May

Harper Adams University College


United Kingdom

Abstract: A relatively new research has introduced non-economic drivers to explain farmers‘ strategic behavior with the objective of gaining an understanding of the way in which farmers adjust in response to policy reforms. In this context, it has been argued that these non-economic drivers remain robust through changes in policy and business environments because they represent long term enduring aspirations. The objective of this article is to test whether these drivers really remain robust to policy changes. For this purpose, a number of farmers were asked to report their attitudes towards specialization before and after the incidence of a particular policy reform. The results revealed that only few drivers remained robust, but others were strongly affected by the reform.


Paper # (15-01) – Included in the conference proceedings

“The Role of Trade Agreement in Promoting Egyptian Exports” Hebatallah Ghoneim


Hebatallah Ghoneim

The German University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Globalization trends pushes developing countries to open its market for free trade. However, under the fear of domestic production break down, developing countries would divert to a second best choice which is regional Integration. Egypt laltely has joined a number of economic integration targeting improvement in its exports. The aim of this paper is to measure the effectiveness of this integration forms in changing exports in Egypt. This is achieved through regression analysis for the Gravity Model based on polled time series cross sectional data to estimate the significance of bilateral and multilateral trade agreements in promoting Egyptian exports.


Paper # (15-02) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Hypermarket Development in Malaysia: Between Consumers’ Demand and Its Impact on the Existing Small Retailers”

Azhar Ahmad, Sallehuddin Mohd Nor, Jumaat Abd Moen, Che Aniza Che Wel, Ahmad Raflis Che Omar


Azhar Ahmed

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia



Abstract: The presence of bigger retail outlets have brought new business opportunities and moved Malaysian retailing industry to greater heights. Hence, a study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of the proposed development of hypermarkets on existing small business retailers. The assessment was based primarily on the perceptions and expressed opinions of both the customers and sampled retailers in the states of Selangor and Penang. The objectives of the study were to: 1) understand the customers‘ behavior on retailing and 2) assess the small retailers regarding their performance, future outlook, and actions taken amid the development of hypermarkets in their areas. From the analysis, the customers welcomed the presence of hypermarket in their area. However, there would be short- term adverse impact on most retail outlets and the degree of the impact is determined by the type of retail business. The study also provides several recommendations for existing small retailers to stay competitive.


Paper # (15-03) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Personal qualities and technical administrative accountant as one of the determinants of the gap between theory and practice in management accounting”

Shala Abulgacem Al-Abiyad, Morrison Handley-Schachler & Ali Ahmed El-Hadd


Morrison Handley-Schachler

Teesside University,


Middlesbrough, England, UK

Abstract: The quality of accounting information and decisions is to a large extent dependent upon the quality of the education of management accountants, both in terms of general education and in terms of specialized business education. This study examines the perceptions of academic accountants and business managers and academic accountants of the accounting education system in Libya by means of questionnaires completed by a sample of 24 managers and 25 lecturers. Respondents indicated that the emphasis in general education and business education of management accountants is largely appropriate in terms of what is presently taught. However, there is still a perceived quality gap, in that the abilities of accountants and the standards of their education in different accounting and business skills generally falls short of the level which should be required given the importance of those skills in the work of the management accountant.


Paper # (15-04) – Not Included in the conference proceedings

FDI determinants, how to explain Arab countries' disconcerting record”

 Walid Abdmoulah


Walid Abdmoulah

Arab Planning Institute Kuwait



Abstract: The paper aims at explaining the disconcerting record of Arab countries in terms of FDI. First we investigate the drivers of FDI outward stocks of 13 OECD countries towards 63 countries including 17 Arab countries, using the OECD FDI statistics. Conclusions are then drawn for Arab countries to explain the factors that prevent them from attracting more FDI by decomposing the gaps between FDI stock of each Arab country and that of Korea. The results regarding FDI drivers are in line with most of the theoretical propositions as well as previous empirical findings. The decomposition of FDI gaps provides valuable evidence. Some of the Arab countries are shown to exert some advantages notably in terms infrastructure, tax rates, trade openness and institutions. Contrarily, all Arab countries suffer from their economic size coupled with meager bilateral trade with FDI source countries. Finally, and most importantly, it has been found that the not explained part of FDI gap varies widely from a country to another. From a policy making point of view this distinction has major implications. Hence, focusing on policy-related variables such as tax rates, infrastructure and institutions can have substantial surge in terms of FDI in UAE, Yemen, Egypt and Sudan, while other countries should stop focusing their reform efforts on these issues since they do not explain much of their FDI deficit.


Paper # (15-05) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Financial Market Regulations and Legislations: The study of Malaysia, the UK and the US Statutes in relation to Financial Statement Fraud”

Norazida Mohamed and Nor Asiah Idris


Norazida Mohamed

Teesside University


Middlesbrough, England, UK

Abstract: This paper attempts to explain the current Malaysian financial market regulations relevant to the financial statement process that could mitigate financial statement fraud (FSF). The paper also reviews similar provisions in the United States and United Kingdom regulations. Design/approach – This paper discusses financial statement fraud and reviews the relevant provisions in the statutes of the three countries in mitigating the fraud. The study found some similarities and differences in regulations between the countries. It seemed that a lot of provisions had been put in place and FSF always exist due to human greed. Research limitations/implications – The paper is limited to Securities Act and the most relevant regulations to the financial statement process. Also, only a few guidelines from the professional accounting bodies were reviewed. Practical implications The paper compared the relevant sections from the various Acts of the three countries. The similarities and the differences of practices may give benefit to mitigate financial statement fraud. Originality/value – Regulators and practitioners may consider the potential sections that give benefit to their country.


Paper # (15-06) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Explaining the decisions to innovate: the case of Tunisian service firms Hanen SDIRI and Mohamed AYADI”


Hanen Sdiri

Tunis Higher Institute of Management



Abstract: It is widely recognized that innovation is the major driver of economic growth and competitiveness. Due to the emergence of the information technologies, the body of the economic research has notably interested more in clarifying the dynamism that characterizes the innovation activities. But, some works focus especially on analyzing the determinants and the effects of innovation while distinguishing product innovation to process innovation. This distinction is often regarded as a fundamental assumption but the way in which firms make the decision to innovate remains rarely tested. Based on a sample of 108 Tunisian service firms, the purpose of the paper is twofold. Firstly, we explain the way in which firms make the decision to innovate: simultaneous (one-stage model) or sequential (two-stage model). Secondly, we compare these two models of innovation decision-making. Given the multiple discrete choices setting, we use a Multinomial Probit model (MNP). We find that the two-stage model has a statistically-significant advantage in predicting the innovation. This result suggests that, in practice, the sequential model illustrate well the innovation making-decision procedures.


Paper # (15-07) – Not Included in the conference proceedings

“A new view into Political Business Cycles: Household Expenditures in Albania”

Holger Kächelein Endrit Lami Drini Imami


Holger Kachelein

Universityof Tirana



Abstract: Over the last decades, there has been plenty of research and articles on Political Business Cycles (PBC), aiming at analyzing and explaining the use of fiscal and monetary instruments to stimulate economic growth before elections, to impress the voters. Following previous research on PBC in Albania, there is clear evidence of fiscal expansion before elections, but no significant changes in inflation and GDP, as theory predicts. Based on these results, we analyze the peoples‘ expectations related to elections outcomes, and the way these expectations influence their decisions to spend, and consequently the macroeconomic variables.


Paper # (15-08) – Included in the conference proceedings

“The Land Market in Latvia after its accession to the European Union Sanita Klava"


Sanita Klava

Latvia University of Agriculture



Abstract: Many authors have researched the impact of support payments on land markets. It was observed that land rental values and also land market values increase due to their impact. The impact was observed in Latvia until 2007. With the beginning

of the financial crisis, which also affected Latvia, the macroeconomic indicators made a more significant impact on the land market, although the amount of support payments increased. A sharp downturn in Latvia‘s land market continued until 2009, which was followed by a moderate decrease in 2010. It is forecasted that Latvia‘s situation will improve in the future.


Paper # (16-01) – Included in the conference proceedings

“New Indicators for the Impact of Globalization on Gender Work Equality”

Mohga Bassim


Mohga Bassim

MSA University mohgabassim@yahoo.com  Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: One of the controversial issues associated with Globalization is its effects on the gaps between countries and inequalities within countries especially developing countries. These inequalities have different forms. They are represented for example in gender inequality and income inequality. In this paper the researcher will focus on the inequality in opportunities at work between genders. As gender equality at work is becoming an important issue for improving the work environment, productivity and economic growth. In order to study the impact of globalization on gender equal opportunity at work, a random survey study of 2021 person was conducted among men and women working in different companies in Egypt. The need for the survey study is due to the inexistence of published data. The survey study is presented together with a comprehensive statistical and graphical analysis of the results. Two indicators Personal Globalization Indicator (PGI) and Work Equal Opportunity Indicator (WEOI) are introduced in order to measure the impact of globalization on the gender work equal opportunity.

The results of the regression model shows that there is a weak positive correlation between the two indicators and this is normal as equality is also affected by other social factors like cultural and religious beliefs which promote gender equality in Egypt. In recent history, women in Egypt have participated in the work force for decades. Egyptian laws and regulations increasingly encourage women's work, and women's income contributes to the families‘ welfare.


Paper # (16-02) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Moslem immigrant consumers' interest for Italian food specialties certified Halal” 

Maurizio Canavari, Abeer Besheer, and Phil Wandschneider


Abeer Besheer

Agriculture Economic Research Inst.


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Recent immigration to Italy of thousands of Muslim workers and families has intensified the problem of a partial incompatibility of different food cultures. For Moslems it is difficult to avoid purchasing foods that contain forbidden ingredients, because these ingredients are common in the generic Italian food market. Halal marks have not been very visible in the Italian market until now. We reports results of a pilot study addressing the question of the interest Moslem consumers may have for the Halal certification of food products that are normal for the Italian market and are usually produced by Italian food processors. We surveyed a sample of 200 immigrant consumers and the data were analyzed trying to connect the interest for Halal certified Italian specialty foods with the principal dimensions concerning the attitudes showed towards the Italian culture and of different aspects of the lifestyle of respondents. Results of the study suggest that a consistent portion of the sample would be willing to purchase Italian traditional food products if the Halal mark would be applied to them, although with some differentiation among the different types of product.


Paper # (16-03) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Does Gender Really Matter? The Case of the Middle East”

Hala Hattab


Hala Hattab

The British University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: It has been widely accepted that entrepreneurship and innovation play important and vital role in the economic growth and development of countries. Both are believed to be positively related, while Drucker believed that innovation is the specific tool of entrepreneurs; Schumpeter viewed the entrepreneur as innovator. Although our

understanding of the relation between innovation and entrepreneurship is seldom gendered, however, there is gender difference among entrepreneurs in terms of levels of innovation.

The current research is a descriptive research aiming at broadening our understanding of the differences between men and women entrepreneurs in the Middle East using the data collected by the Adults Population Survey as part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in 2008 and 2009.

The research shows that although the level of entrepreneurship in Arab countries is fairly good; the level of innovation is poor with men entrepreneurs being more innovative than women.


Paper # (16-04) – Included in the conference proceedings

“The need for a development oriented approach to the BOP in LDCs”

Essa Ahmed AlHanom


Essa Ahmed Alhannom

Ibb University



Abstract: The main argument here is that the conventional approaches to the BOP deal with the symptoms but not with the original causes or sources of BOP difficulties in LDCs. Trying to benefit from the current world economic situation, this article proposed a development-oriented approach to bop adjustment in LDCs which refreshes and extends calls and suggestions, of few economists during the last three decades, that emphasized the need to deal with bop difficulties of these countries in the context of a structural transformation process. The suggested development- oriented approach represents a general guideline and thus supposes that the detailed policy prescription must be left to the peculiarities of every economy to determine what is needed.


Paper # (16-05) – Included in the conference proceedings

“A study on profitability of beef production sector and opportunities for the new Entrepreneurs in Turkey”

M.Gül, H.Yilmaz,Y.Bozkurt,Y.Yilmaz. G.Hiz



Suleyman Demirel University



Abstract: Beef sector in Turkey has encountered a significant setback due to the gradual decrease in total number of animals for the last 25 years. There is a no continuum in the policies implemented by governments. In addition, increase in the desired level of red meat production has not corresponded to the increase in population. The prices of meat have been increased due to the failure in red meat production to satisfy the demand. Recently, subsidies in livestock policies of the current government have been introduced to encourage the new entrepreneurs to invest and improve beef sector in the country.

In this study within the framework of these assessments, the present number of animals, current meat production level, fluctuations in the prices of meat and feed, improvements in carcass yield and changes in beef business policies were analyzed.

Fattening cattle in different production systems in terms of entrepreneurial profitability has also been discussed.


Paper # (16-06) – Included in the conference proceedings

“A Genetic Algorithm Based Technique for Solving the Supply-Demand Interaction in Electronic Commerce”

M.S. Osman, M.A. Abo Sinna, A. H. Amer, O.E. Emam


Osama Emam

Helwan University


Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Bi-level programming, a tool for modelling decentralized decisions, consists of the objectives of the leader at its first level and that of the follower at the second level. Numerous algorithms have been developed so far for solving bi-level programming problem .In this paper by using genetic algorithm (GA), an attempt has been made to solve a real problem, (the supply – demand interaction in electronic commerce(EC) ) , taking into account the non – linear model to such problem .By applying the bi-level programming technique via genetic algorithm and a flow chart of interaction process, the study will develop an analytical process to explain how supply – demand interaction achieves a compromise solution or why the process fails. The proposed genetic algorithm utilizes the idea of the weak duality theorem, such that both primal and dual solution of the non-linear programming problem under consideration is generated simultaneously, to determine the interval in which the optimal solution is located. Finally, an illustrative numerical example, of the application problem, is given to demonstrate the obtained results.


Paper # (16-07) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Do Subsidies increase poor access: The case of wheat in Egypt?” 

Randa Hamza & Shadwa Zaher


  Shadwa Mahmoud Zaher

British University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

Randa Mahmoud Hamza

The American University in Cairo


Cairo, Egypt

  Abstract: The agriculture sector in Egypt is one of the most important sectors affecting the level of economic well-being and performance. It accounts for 25% of labor force, 14% of GDP and 20% of exported goods (CAPMAS, 2010). Wheat is the major staple crop in the country consumed mainly as bread. It constitutes 33% of total winter crop area. Today, Egypt‘s annual per capita consumption of wheat is estimated to be 180 Kg which is almost double the international average (AFSA, 2010). In 2010, Egypt‘s average wheat imports were 9.8 million MT, making Egypt the world‘s largest importer of wheat. The government‘s main policy for wheat is to increase self- sufficiency ratio and encourage more local production. Although the government introduced a number of agricultural liberalization reforms in 1987, it still kept the wheat subsidization policies of 1962 in effect. However, this policy created several market distortions and failed to efficiently achieve its main goals. This paper uses a descriptive analysis to show the trends of production, consumption and the effects of wheat subsidies from year 2005 to 2010. The main goal is to examine the different policies that will secure the Egyptian sector from future shocks; and the possible ways to improve national policies to enhance self-sufficiency and access of the poor. The analysis concludes that subsidies, as being an important policy tool for advancing development and eliminating poverty in Egypt, should be maintained by only targeting the poor through effective measures that prevent any leakage. In addition, policies that increase rural farmers‘ local production and competitiveness need to be introduced to avoid any kind of future supply shocks.


Paper # (16-08) – Included in the conference proceedings

“Spillover effect, international exposure to risk & sustaining growth: Canada – USA”

Ghada Gomaa A. Mohamed, Morriosn Handley-Schachler & Manuch Irandost


Ghada Gomaa A. Mohamed



Ottawa, Canada

Abstract: This paper tests the spillover effect of the foreign capital inflows on the long run growth under conditions of international economic exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. The paper utilizes a simple open economy version of the Solow growth model with main features of real business cycles models. In addition, the paper uses a time series model with substitutions techniques to test the impact of the spillover impact of foreign capital inflows on the long run growth of Canada with controlling for exposure to foreign exchange fluctuations. The paper also controls for both external and internal balances. The results show that the exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations undermines the technological spillover impact of the foreign capital on long-run growth. It however does not affect the serial correlation impact of the spillover on the economic growth rate of Canada. The paper emphasized on Canada-USA bilateral relationship rather than Canada-the rest of the world case.


Panel Discussions

Panel discussion # (14-01) – Poverty Reduction & Development Presenter: Prof. Yomn El-Hamaqi; Ain Shams University.

Panel discussion # (14-02) – Leadership & Entrepreneurship Presenter: Prof. David Kirby; The British University.

Panel discussion # (15-01) – Management Development

Presenter: Prof. Hussein Saraya; Management Development Consulting.

Panel discussion # (15-02) – Financial Risk Management

Presenter: Dr. Mohamed Hashem & Dr. John Adams; The British University.

Panel discussion # (16-01) – Financial Fraud Reduction Presenters: Norazida Mohamed, Teesside University.

Panel discussion # (16-02) – The importance of Agricultural sector & poverty reduction in Egypt

Presenters: Dr. Ahmed Salama (The British University) & Abeer Besheer (Agricultural Economic research Institute).

Panel discussion # (17-01) – Economic Crises Management

Presenter: Dr. Ghada Gomaa A. Mohamed, Ottawa University & Canadian International College.

Panel discussion # (17-02) – Political Transition & Economic Reform in Egypt: Suggestions and views.

Open discussions until the end of the program at 1:00 pm.


Open Lectures

Dr. Morrison Handley-Schachler (Financial Fraud & Crime Reductions Expert)

Lecture #1: Thursday, April 14th, 2011 From 6:00 – 9:00 pm

Accounting as Science, Art and Black Magic.

Lecture #2: Friday, April 15th, 2011 From 6:00 – 9:00 pm

Auditors: Are They Just Wasting Your Time?

Lecture #3: Sunday, April 17th, 2011 From 6:00 – 9:00 pm

Risk Management: Describing the Indescribable and Planning for Unknown Unknowns.


End of Conference


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